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Atherosclerosis: Understanding the Silent Threat to Your Arteries

Atherosclerosis, also known as hardening of the arteries, is a chronic condition characterized by the buildup of plaque on the inner walls of your arteries. This plaque, composed of fat, cholesterol, and other substances, narrows the arteries and hinders blood flow throughout your body. While often called a "silent killer" due to its lack of noticeable symptoms in the early stages, atherosclerosis is a major contributor to various life-threatening health conditions, including:

  • Heart disease: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of coronary artery disease (CAD), which can lead to heart attacks and angina (chest pain).

  • Stroke: When plaque breaks off and travels in the bloodstream, it can block arteries leading to the brain, causing a stroke.

  • Peripheral artery disease (PAD): Atherosclerosis in the arteries of the legs can lead to pain, cramping, and even tissue death in severe cases.

Plaque buildup in an artery
Plaque buildup in an artery

Understanding the Risk Factors:

Several factors can increase your risk of developing atherosclerosis, including:

  • Unhealthy diet: Consuming a diet high in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, and added sugars can contribute to plaque buildup.

  • Physical inactivity: Regular exercise helps maintain healthy cholesterol levels and improves overall cardiovascular health.

  • Obesity: Excess weight puts additional strain on your heart and arteries.

  • Smoking: Smoking damages the inner lining of your arteries and accelerates plaque formation.

  • Diabetes: High blood sugar levels can damage blood vessels and increase the risk of plaque buildup.

  • High blood pressure: Uncontrolled high blood pressure puts additional stress on your arteries.

  • High cholesterol: High levels of LDL ("bad") cholesterol and low levels of HDL ("good") cholesterol contribute to plaque formation.

  • Family history: Having a family member with atherosclerosis increases your risk.

Symptoms of Atherosclerosis:

Atherosclerosis often progresses without any noticeable symptoms until it reaches an advanced stage. However, as the condition worsens, individuals may experience symptoms such as:

  • Chest pain or discomfort (angina)

  • Shortness of breath

  • Fatigue

  • Numbness or weakness in extremities

  • Erectile dysfunction in men

Combating Atherosclerosis: Preventive Measures:

The good news is that atherosclerosis is largely preventable by adopting a healthy lifestyle:

  • Eat a heart-healthy diet: Focus on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean protein, and healthy fats. Limit saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, and added sugars.

  • Maintain a healthy weight: Losing weight and keeping it off reduces the strain on your heart and arteries.

  • Engage in regular physical activity: Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per week.

  • Quit smoking: Smoking cessation is one of the most significant steps you can take to improve your cardiovascular health.

  • Manage stress effectively: Chronic stress can contribute to unhealthy lifestyle choices and increase inflammation in the body.

  • Control your blood pressure and cholesterol levels: Regular monitoring and medication, if necessary, are crucial.

Early Detection and Treatment:

While atherosclerosis often progresses without initial symptoms, certain tests can help detect it early:

  • Blood tests: Essential blood tests used to assess atherosclerosis risk and guide preventive measures Iinclude:

    • Lipid Profile:measures various types of cholesterol and fats in the blood

    • High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) is a marker of inflammation in the body and elevated levels could be associated with atherosclerosis development and progression.

    • Homocysteine is an amino acid linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis. Elevated levels may promote arterial damage and plaque formation.

    • Fasting Blood Glucose: High fasting blood sugar levels are associated with insulin resistance, diabetes, and increased risk of atherosclerosis.

    • Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is a protein found in LDL particles and its levels provides a more accurate assessment of LDL particle number, which good assessor of atherosclerosis risk.

    • Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a type of lipoprotein similar to LDL cholesterol. Elevated levels are associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events.

    • Fibrinogen is a protein involved in blood clot formation. Elevated fibrinogen levels are associated with increased blood viscosity and risk of atherosclerosis-related events such as heart attacks and strokes.

  • Imaging tests: X-rays, CT scans, and ultrasounds can visualize plaque buildup in arteries.

If you are diagnosed with atherosclerosis, your doctor will work with you to develop a personalized management plan, including lifestyle modifications, medications, and potentially minimally invasive procedures or surgery to address blocked or narrowed arteries.


Atherosclerosis is a serious health concern, but by understanding the risk factors and adopting a healthy lifestyle, you can significantly reduce your risk of developing this condition and protect your overall cardiovascular health. If you have any concerns about your risk factors or suspect you might have atherosclerosis, consult your doctor for a comprehensive evaluation and personalized guidance.

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